Saturday, July 17, 2010

Malays are from Borneo - Dusun

Dr Zafarina studies on genetics showed Malay people migrated from Borneo to Sumatera and then to Peninsula Malaysia. I have attached part of her writings below.


Human Genome Center , School of Health Sciences and Dental School , USM
CURRENT STATUS OF PROJECT: Ongoing ( started : Jan 2005 )
Principle Investigator: Dr. Zafarina Zainuddin
Co-researchers: Dr. Zilfalil Alwi, Prof. Abd. Rani Samsudin, Miss Azlina Ahmad,
Dr. Bakiah Shaharuddin, Dr. Liza Sharmini Ahmad Tajudin, Mr.
Hoh Boon Peng, Mr. Mohamad Ros Sidek, Dr. Nizam Abdullah,
Prof. Norazmi Mohd. Nor, Assoc. Prof. Ooi Keat Gin,
Panneerchelvam, Dr. Zainul Ahmad Rajion, Prof. Zainul

The Malay race inhabits particularly Peninsular Malaysia and portions of adjacent islands of Southeast Asia (SEA), east coast of Sumatra , coast of Borneo and smaller islands between these areas.

They were traced by anthropological evidence from the north-western part of Yunnan , in China .

The proto-Malays were seafaring people, probably from coastal Borneo who expanded into Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia as a result of trading and seafaring activities.

The present day Malays, called Modern Malays of Peninsular Malaysia and coast of the Malay Archipelago are a mixture of different races.

They were described as deutero-Malays, descendants of the proto-Malays mixed with modern Indians, Thai, Arab and Chinese.

The history and the origin of the Malay race have been the subject of much speculation among scholars.

Since the Malays primarily reside within SEA, particularly Peninsular Malaysia, the prehistoric migrations into these regions must be taken into consideration.

Several hypotheses of the SEA migration pattern have been put forward. Preliminary studies using mitochondrial DNA analyses suggested affinity of the Southern Mongoloid in the Modern Malay population of Peninsular Malaysia (Zafarina, 2004).

The term Melayu or Malay‚ was also associated with the Hindu-Buddhist Srivijaya Empire (7th-13 centuries CE) believed to be located in the South-eastern part of Sumatra .

An Arab text dating around 1000 CE observed that travellers bound for China sailed through the sea of Melayu‚ that can be inferred to mean the Straits of Melaka.

On opposite shores of the Straits of Melaka by the 7th century CE or earlier, there were the domicile areas of the Malays, namely Sumatra and the Malay Peninsular.

1. To compile the genetic profile of the Malay race.
2. To study the history, social and anthropology of the Malay race.
3. To characterise the craniofacial, dental and ocular features of Malay race.
4. To correlate the genetic profile of the Malay race with their craniofacial, dental and
ocular characteristics.
5. To correlate the genetic profile of the Malay race with its history, social and
6. To trace the origin of the Malay race by using the genetic profile, anthropology,
craniofacial, dental and ocular characteristics.

The research encompasses four parts of studies: The Historical and Socio-cultural Analysis, the Ocular Morphology Analysis, the Craniofacial Morphology Analysis, and the last major part, the Genetic Analysis.

Various types of genetic markers are used in the study of the genetic components of the population.

These markers are autosomal and Y chromosome STR markers, mtDNA, Human Leucocytes Antigen (HLA) and lastly, the SNP genotyping which will be done using the Microarray 50K genechip system.

1. The tracing of the origin and the migration pattern of the Malay race.
2. Establishing USM as a part of the member of Pacific Pan-Asian SNP Initiative (PASNPI) organized by Human Genome Organization (HUGO)”

Dr Zafarina studies is one of the most cnclusive evidence of Borneo origins of the Malay race. They are not called Malay in Borneo, but Dusuns or Dayaks.

Dr Zafarina traced the genetic migration of the Dusunic speaking people of Borneo southwards in Borneo and along the way producing other tribes such as the Lun Bawangs, Bidayuhs, Ibans, etc. The Bidayuhs in turn migrated to Sulawesi and found the Bugis people. When the Dayaks or Dusun reached the southern tip of Borneo, they simply crossed over to Jawa and Sumatera.

Scientist has concluded that the Expres Train theory that the Malay race come from Taiwan were now discredited. Scientist found genes found among Polynesians (Hawaii) were not found among the indigenous Taiwanese. This shows the connection is missing.

Instead the theory goes that the Malay people who migrated from Indo China reached the coast of Borneo where the race and language of the Malayo Polynesian incubated. It was from Borneo that people migrated out to Taiwan, the Philippines and the rest of Insular Southeast Asia and the pacifics and the Indian ocean.

The proto Malays of Borneo were once great seafarers, reaching as far away land as Madagascar. Their migration led them to other Islands brought them to Sumatera, Jawa, Sulawesi, and then to the Pacifics Islands.

Incidently, the Malagasy language in Madagascar is closest to Maanyan language of Barito Kalimantan. But Manyan is closest to Dusun Witu of Barito which is alsmot 80% similar to the Dusun language of the Penampang and Papar Sabah dialect.

Dusun is about 30% similar to modern Malay. We know that modern Malay is only 30% indigenous, the rest were derived from or enriched by Sanskrit (Indian language), Arabs (during Islamic influence) and Chinese.

But the 30% indigenous are almost all similar to Dusun language in terms of sound and meanings. The followings are some Dusun/Malay similarity.

Eg mato for mata, tolingo for telinga, todung for hidung, dilah for lidah, siku for siku, longon for lengan, kulit for kulit, tonsi for isi, raha for darah, tulang for tulang, wulu for bulu, pusod for pusat, tuhat for urat, wotis for betis, etc.

Other words, kayu for kayu, watang for batang, roun for daun, bunga for bunga, tuah for buah, etc
others, wulan for bulan, watu for batu, tana for tanah, sawat for sawat (as in pesawat), osin for masin, onsom for masam, po’it for pahit, omis for manis, apui for api, matai for mati, pais for pisau, etc.

Others, iso for sa, duo for dua, apat for empat, limo for lima , onom for enam, etc.

Others, palanuk for pelanduk, buayo for buaya, lipos for lipas, tikus for tikus, tontolu for telur, ulanut for ular, etc

There are hundreds of words that form the indigenous part of the Malay language.

The dusun origins of modern Malay is something to be researched further. The dusunic speaking people are quite widespread. The Bisaya of Sarawak are dusunic people, also the dusuns of Tutung and Belait Brunei. In Barito, Kalimantan, the several dusunic speakers are related to the dusunic language.

Even the Bajau language and most visayan dialects in the Philippines can be traced to the dusunic langauge.

According to Dr Zafarina, the dusuns produce the Bajau people (interesting). This correspond with the legend among Visayans that they came from Borneo.

It is ironic that the dusuns today are not constitutional Malay though scientific evidence now showed the Borneo origins of the Malay language.

The dusuns who populated Borneo did not find great civilization in Borneo. The credit must be given to their descendents who migrated to Sumatera and eventually became Malays through intermarriage with the more culturally advance Indians to form the seeds of the melayur kingdom.

Today it is true being Malay is a pride to many Malaysians. But the Malaysian Constitutional definition does not make them racially Malays. Officially, the word Malay is a religious identity, not a racial identity.

Ironically, the only other people who defined their ethnic identity in terms of religion are the Jewish people.

Even Arabs recognize Arab Christians as Arabs. But in Malaysia, one has to be a Muslim to be a Malay.

The Malaysian constitutional definition excludes Javanese, Filipinos, and other indigenous in Southeast Asia who are malayo polynesian speakers as Malays because they do not fulfil the constitutinal definition.

The Malaysian definition of a Malay reduced the number of ethnic Malay to just 25 million people wolrd wide.

Thus, the Malay history also started only with the advent of islam in the 14th century. Malay did not exist before the advent of Islam.

The term Malay was popularized by western anthropologists based on their readings of Sejarah Melayu, however, distorted.

The term Malay is now very popular, used even by President Gloria Aroyo to identify her Filipino racial heritage. Unfortunately, may be she did not know, but the Malaysian Malays would have disputed her. She does not fulfill the Malaysian Constitutional definition to be a Malay.

Unless Malaysia change its constitution to make Malay a racial identity for Malayo Polynesian people, then the narrow definition would make the term Malay relevant to a small group of people in a sea of 300 million Austronesian Malayo Polynesian speakers.

As of now, to be a Malay is just like to be a Jew, where ethnicity is defined by religious identity.

Taken from:

Dunia Itu

Sunday, March 14, 2010

Sea of RED

It has been almost a year since the 'Black Songkran' and now the 'REDs' are back, this time not just thousands but they are aiming to have at least 1 million. Today is the 'D' day.. tomorrow... ?

Govt likely to enforce state of emergency on top of ISA
Published on March 14, 2010

The government will likely enforce a state-of-emergency decree today to cope with the escalating security problem in Bangkok after tens of thousands of provincial protesters arrived in the city yesterday.

A state of emergency, which would be on top on the current implementation of the Internal Security Act (ISA), would empower the military to fully take charge of the situation.

Under the ISA, soldiers can only help the police in maintaining law and order.

Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva is expected to hold an emergency Cabinet meeting before the emergency decree is used, according to a senior government source.

Red shirts rallying for "democracy" yesterday threatened a mass march on Abhisit's hold-out if he does not dissolve the House of Representatives by noon today.

Tens of thousands of protesters gathering from across the country at the main rally stage on Rajdamnoen Avenue were prepared to lay siege to the Army's 11th Infantry Regiment on Phaholyothin, where the premier is temporarily billeted and manning a "war room".

Many demonstrators from the Northeast, North and other parts of the country arrived in Bangkok yesterday, with their numbers expected to swell past 100,000 today, said Tawil Pliensri, secretary-general of the National Security Council.

Jatuporn Promphan, a key leader of the anti-government movement, said that at this stage they had no plan to march to Government House, Parliament House or the house of Privy Council President Prem Tinsulanonda. Natthawut Saikua, the red-shirt spokesman, said today would see more arrivals from central, eastern and western provinces as well as from around Bangkok.

"We're still confident the count will reach 1 million," he said.

Veera Musikapong, another leader, will address the rally today and deliver an ultimatum for Abhisit to dissolve the House and call a snap election.

"If Abhisit ignores our demand, we'll step up the protest by marching on Bangkok's streets and urge more people to join our campaign for House dissolution," Natthawut said.

The red shirts expect a successful conclusion before the week is out.

"Altogether, we do not plan to stay more than seven days. I guess we could have a victory within four days," Jatuporn said.

Korkaew Pikulthong, another leader, said disbanding the House was the only solution to the current crisis, nothing less.

"If Abhisit resigns, then Chuan Leekpai, chairman of the Democrat Party's advisory council, would likely be his replacement. In this case, we will continue to protest. We want the government to return power to the people via a new election.

"If there are more than 500,000 protesters, I think Abhisit will have to dissolve the House and every party should reach an understanding to accept the outcome of the new poll so that the country can move forward.

"Representatives of all the stakeholders, including General Prem, president of the Privy Council, Abhisit, General Anupong [Paochinda, Army chief], Sonthi Limtongkul [of the yellow-shirt movement] as well as General Chavalit [Yongchaiyudh, chairman of the Pheu Thai Party] and Veera Musikapong and Thaksin Shinawatra should also enter into this agreement," he said.

Police plan to dispatch 3,700 reinforcements to keep law and order during the red shirts' show of force in Bangkok.

Metropolitan Police spokesman Maj-General Piya Uthayo said police estimated some 40,000 red shirts had assembled in Bangkok yesterday, with more to join last night and today.

Authorities would be on guard for any sabotage during the night, he said.

Acting Government Spokesman Panitan Wattanayagorn said a huge turnout by the red shirts was still not beyond expectations.

Authorities would exercise special care around the protest site, mainly on Rajdamnoen Avenue, and the residences of important figures in order to prevent any unfortunate incidents.

Abhisit expects the build-up of protesters to peak today.

Authorities now will focus on preventing any extreme incidents, he said.

Deputy Prime Minister Suthep Thaugsuban said authorities would use no force as long as the protesters did not break the law.

If they started blocking roads or breaking into government buildings or trashing private property, authorities would disperse the troublemakers, he added.